James Espinoza, MA, ATC Adriana Trost, ATC

Damien Memorial School hires a board certified athletic trainer to ensure the prevention and treatment of athletic associated injuries.

A certified athletic trainer (ATC) has the knowledge on a wide variety of medical problems, and applies evaluation and treatment techniques, while working alongside other health care professionals.

Pre-participation Physical Exams

To ensure the optimal care for your student athlete, an athletic pre-participation examination is required. This can be downloaded from the side bar, “participation requirements”. This tells the ATC if there are any previous medical conditions (i.e. asthma, heart conditions, epilepsy, etc.), so they can properly treat your student athlete in the event of an emergency.

In addition, ImPACT baseline concussion testing is performed every two years (unless there is a concussion), to safely return your student athlete to sport if they get a concussion.


What is a concussion?

A concussion is a disturbance of brain function caused by a blow or violent shaking of the head, neck or body. The head does not have to receive a direct blow to result in a concussion, forces can be transmitted throughout the body. Please watch the attached video for more information.

What are concussion symptoms?

-headache -nausea -dizziness -fatigue -sensitivity to light -sensitivity to noise -emotional -difficulty concentrating -vision problems

These are common symptoms of a concussion that would not cause immediate emergency referral. Your student may have any combination of these symptoms and does not affect the severity (seriousness) of their concussion. If your student experiences vomiting, migraines, a change in personality, or altered alertness please take your student to the emergency room. DO NOT wait for the certified athletic trainer to evaluate your student.

What is the return to play for a concussion?

The first 24 hours after a concussion, your student will see the certified athletic trainer on staff. The diagnosis is based on a comprehensive evaluation with multiple concussion tools. The athletic trainer will refer the student athlete to a physician, and an appointment should be made in the first 24 to 48 hours. A doctor note needs to be received to begin step 3 (see below).

After your student returns with a note from their medical doctor or physician, the return to activity begins. This is a 7-step process, with at least 24 hours between each step.

Step 1: No Activity-complete cognitive rest. It may be recommended by the athletic trainer or physician for the student to stay home from school to allow for symptoms to resolve. The athletic trainer will email the school’s counselor to inform the student’s respective teachers on the concussion and necessary classroom accommodations.

Step 2: Return to school full time-the student has the ability to complete a full school day and concentrate without needing accommodations.

Step 3: Light Aerobic Activity-add light activity such as riding a stationary bike to ensure no symptoms arise.

Step 4: Moderate Activity/Light Resistance Training-maximize the aerobic activity to ensure no symptoms arise.

Step 5: Non-contact practice-increase the aerobic activity, and progress the athlete through sports specific activities.

Step 6: Full-contact practice-participate in a full practice without the onset of symptoms.

Step 7: Return to competition-full clearance to participate in the respective sport.

*Any step may be delayed or repeated at the discretion of the certified athletic trainer or physician.

For more information on concussions please visit the Hawaii State Concussion Awareness Management Program.


Heat Prevention

For outdoor sports, the ATC uses a wet bulb globe thermometer to evaluate environmental conditions. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, sun angle and cloud cover (solar radiation), are analyzed.

Collectively the ATC, team physician, and athletic directors will determine if the game or practice is fit to continue.